Start with why?

Source from Simon Sinek

I found this video very valuable for providing a simple framework to set up the basics for a new initiative.

I start all of my product initiatives, and that helps me to write and communicate a logical flow to the stakeholders.

That provides a self-introspection to define and explore our core motivations.

Why we do it? = problem statement

  • what’s your cause / purpose / belief
  • why your organization exist?

How we do it? = user story (process, behavior)

  • limbic brains → handles all your feelings, like trust and loyalty, humain behavior, decision making but not capacity for language

What we do? = we produce the what, to achieve the how based on the why.

Aka the final product with the user flow.

What → How => people can understand vast amounts of complicated information features, benefits, fact and figures

Why → How → What => talking directly to the part of the brain that controls behavior, allowing people to rationalize it with tangible things we say and do

–> The success of business communication is like:

Example if Apple were using a lambda marketing:

  • what? we make great computers

  • How? they’re beautifully designed, simple to use, and user-friendly.

=> Do you wanna buy one?

Apple’s current communication:

  • why? in everything we do, we believe in challenging the status quo. We believe in thinking differently

  • how? the way to challenge the status quo is by making our products beautifully designed, simple to use, and user-friendly

  • what? we just happen to make great computers

=> Do you wanna buy one?

People don’t buy what you do; they buy why you do it

The goal is not to do business with everybody who needs what you have

The goal is to do business with people who believe what you believe

Different types of L2s from Vitalik.B


Layer 2 ecosystem has been expanding this year, with new initiatives like:

  • L2beat page - summarizing the state of each project
  • Layer 1 projects move toward being Rollup or Validium
  • Broader efforts are around EVM

Layer 2 trend:

  • independent L1 are seeking to come closer to the Ethereum ecosystem by developing their Rollup initiative.
    • step-by-step transition to minimize the risks
  • centralized project starts to care more about user security
    • only need a intermediate level of decentralization
    • very high level of throughput
  • non-financial app, wants to be decentralized
    • they need a intermediate level of security => Users from the non-blockchain world will not be paying the current transaction costs.

Two key dimensions to come closer to Ethereum

  • security of withdrawing to Ethereum
  • security of reading Ethereum

Rollups vs Validiums vs Disconnected systems

→ What are the technology tradeoffs or levels of guarantee users have to be able to take the asset back to L1?

With Rollup - computation proven via fraud/zk-proof + data stored on L1

  • You can always bring the asset back to L1

With Validiums - computation proven by zk-SNARKs + data stored off-chain

  • Data availability failures can cause assets to be lost but not stolen

With Disconnected systems - a separate chain or server

  • Trust one or a small group of people not to steal your funds or lose the keys

What motivates applications to choose

a particular point on that spectrum, and not some point further left or further right?

  • native DA cost of Ethereum
  • different degrees of applications need to satisfied their users
  • the ability to read the Ethereum blockchain, in case of problem
    • being able to revert if Ethereum reverts

Does having a bridge make you a validium?

Currently, not yet, because:

Scenario 1: top chain + bridge contract accept block header (check the Ethereum consensus)

In this scenario, not yet:

  • is only a validation of signed blocks and not a validation of the state transitions are correct
  • the top chain has no way to read Ethereum

Scenario 2: validating bridge checks the consensus + proving the state of any block are computed correctly with a zk-SNARKs

  • the top chain can’t steal users funds
  • can publish block with unavailable data
  • preventing everyone from withdrawing
  • cannot read Ethereum So the answer is, not yet. (same security model as a validium)

To allow the top chain to read Ethereum, we need:

  • put a bridge contract validating Ethereum blocks inside the top chain
  • each block in the top chain contains a hash of a recent Ethereum block + fork choice rule to enforce the hash likings